May, 16, 2024

Vol.57 No.2

Editorial Office

Current Issue

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering 2024;57(1):
Study on the growth of boron-doped diamond films in relation to pretreatment processes

Mi Young Youa, Song Hyeon Leeb, Pung-Keun Songb,*

aThe Institute of Materials Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea bDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 1-7.


The study investigated the impact of substrate pretreatment on depositing high-quality B-doped diamond (BDD) thin films using the HFCVD method. Films were deposited on Si and Nb substrates after sanding and seeding. Despite identical sanding conditions, BDD films formed faster on Nb due to even diamond seed distribution. Post-deposition, film average roughness (Ra) remained similar to substrate Ra, but higher substrate Ra led to decreased crystallinity. Nb substrate with 0.83 μm Ra exhibited faster crystal growth due to dense, evenly distributed diamond seeds. BDD film on Nb with 0.83 μm Ra showed a wide, stable potential window (2.8 eV) in CV results and a prominent 1332 cm-1 diamond peak in Raman spectroscopy, indicating high quality. The findings underscore the critical role of substrate pretreatment in achieving high-quality BDD film fabrication, crucial for applications demanding robust p-type semiconductors with superior electrical properties.


Boron-doped diamond; HF-CVD; Sanding process; Seeding process; Potential window

Dielectric breakdown of anodic oxide films formed on AA6061 in 20% H2SO4 and 8% H2SO4+ 3% C2H2O4 solutions

Cheolgi Parka, Jaehwak Janga, Yunsuk Hyuna and Sungmo Moonb,c*

aR&D Center, As Tech, Republic of Korea bSurface Technology Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Republic of Korea cAdvanced Materials Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 8-13.


Anodizing of Al6061 alloy was conducted in two different electrolytes of 20% sulfuric acid and 8% sulfuric acid + 3 % oxalic acid solutions at a constant current or decreasing current density conditions, and its dielectric breakdown voltage was measured. The surface morphology of anodic oxide films was observed by TEM and thermal treatment was carried out at 400 ℃ for 2 h to evaluate the resistance of the anodic oxide films to crack initiation. The anodic oxide film formed in 8% sulfuric acid + 3 % oxalic acid solution showed higher dielectric breakdown voltage and better resistance to crack initiation at 400 ℃ than that formed in 20% sulfuric acid solution. The dielectric breakdown voltage increased 6 ~12% by applying decreasing current density comparing with a constant current density.


Anodizing; Oxide film; Al6061 alloy; Constanct current density; Decreasing current density.

The Effect of Aluminum Element on the Surface Properties of CrAlN Coating Film Deposited via Arc Ion Plating

Jae-Un Kima, Byeong-Seok Lima, Young-Shin Yuna, Byung-Woo Ahna, Han-Cheol Choeb,*

aPlasma Coating R & D Center, JNLTECH Co., Ltd., Gwangju, Korea bDepartment of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 14-21.


For this study, CrAlN multilayer coatings were deposited on SKD61 substrates using a multi-arc ion plating technique. The structural characteristics of the CrAlN multilayer coatings were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the adhesion of the coatings was assessed through scratch testing, and the mechanical strength was evaluated using nanoindentation and tribometric tests for frictional properties. The results show that the CrAlN multilayer coatings possess a uniform and dense structure with excellent mechanical strength. Hardness measurements indicated that the CrAlN coatings have high hardness values, and both the coating adhesion and wear resistance were found to be improved compared to CrN. The addition of aluminum is anticipated to contribute to enhanced durability and wear resistance.


CrAlN Coating; PVD; Linear ion source; Mass Production.

Investigation of direct growth behavior of carbon nanotubes on cathode powder materials in lithium-ion batteries

Hyun-Ho Han, Jong-Hwan Lee, Goo-Hwan Jeong*

Interdisciplinary Program in Advanced Functional Materials and Devices Development, Graduate School of Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 22-30.


This study reports a direct growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of LiCoO2 (LCO) powders to apply as highly efficient cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIB). The CNT synthesis was performed using a thermal chemical vapor deposition apparatus with temperatures from 575 to 625 °C. Ferritin molecules as growth catalyst of CNTs were mixed in deionized (DI) water with various concentrations from 0.05 to 1.0 mg/mL. Then, the LCO powders was dissolved in the ferritin solution at a ratio of 1g/mL. To obtain catalytic iron nanoparticles on the LCO surface, the LCO-ferritin suspension was dropped in silicon dioxide substrates and calcined under air at 550°C. Subsequently, the direct growth of CNTs on LCO powders was performed using a mixture of acetylene (10 sccm) and hydrogen (100 sccm) for 10 min. The growth behavior was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The optimized condition yielding high structural quality and amount of CNTs was 600 °C and 0.5 mg/mL. The obtained materials will be developded as cathode materials in LIB.


Direct growth; Carbon nanotubes; LCO powder; Cathode materials; Lithium ion batteries.

Study on Lithium Extraction Using Cellulose Nanofiber

Raeil Jeong , Jinsub Choi*

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 22212 Incheon, Republic of Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 31-37.


The surge in demand for lithium is primarily fueled by the expanding electric vehicle market, the necessity for renewable energy storage, and governmental initiatives aimed at achieving carbon neutrality. This study proposes a straightforward method for lithium extraction utilizing cellulose nanofiber (CNF) via a vacuum filtration process. This approach yields a porous CNF film, showcasing its potential utility as a lithium extractor and indicator. Given its abundance and eco-friendly characteristics, cellulose nanofiber (CNF) emerges as a material offering both economic and environmental advantages over traditional lithium extraction techniques. Hence, this research not only contributes to lithium recovery but also presents a sustainable solution to meet the growing demand for lithium in energy storage technologies.


Cellulose nanofiber (CNF); Lithiation; Lithium extraction; Lithium indicator.

Highly ordered In2O3 zig-zag nanocolumns for selective detection of acetone

Jae Han Chunga, Ho-Gyun Kima, Yun-Haeng Choa, Junho Hwangb, See-Hyung Parka, Sungwoo Sohnb, Su Bin Junga, Eunsol Leea, Kwangjae Leec,*, Young-Seok Shima,*

aSchool of Energy, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan, 31253, Republic of Korea bDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonseiro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea cDepartment of Information Security Engineering, Sangmyung University Cheonan, 31066, Republic of Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 38-48.


We fabricated In2O3 zig-zag nanocolumns(ZZNCs) by oblique angle deposition method based on e-beam evaporator for highly sensitive and selective CH3COCH3 sensor. Our results indicate that as the ZZNCs layer stacks, the gas response also increases. In comparison to thin films, ZZNCs at 5 layer show a 117-fold enhancement in gas response and a rapid response time (~2 s). When measured with various gases, it showed a high selectivity towards acetone. Under conditions of R.H. 80%, exposure to CH3COCH3 gas theoretically indicated a detection limit of 1.2 part-per-billion(ppb). These results suggest the potential of In2O3 ZZNCs as a breath analyzer for the diagnosis of diabetes.


Deposition of aluminum nitride nanopowders and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

Kwangseok Leea, Heon-Ju Choib, and Handong Chob,*

aAlternative Fuels and Power System Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Ships & Ocean Engineering (KRISO), Daejeon 34103, Korea bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 58554, Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 49-56.


Superhydrophobic surfaces have been expected to be able to provide considerable performance improvements and introduce innovative functions across diverse industries. However, representative methods for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces include etching the substrate or attaching nano-sized particles, but they have been limited by problems such as applicability to only a few materials or low adhesion between particles and substrates, resulting in a short lifetime of superhydrophobic properties. In this work, we report a novel coating technique that can achieve superhydrophobicity by electrophoretic deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) nanopowders and their self-bonding to form a surface structure without the use of binder resins through a hydrolysis reaction. Furthermore, by using a water-soluble adhesive as a temporary shield for the electrophoretic deposited AlN powders, hierarchical aluminum hydroxide structures can be strongly adhered to a variety of electrically conductive substrates. This binder-free technique for creating hierarchical structures that exhibit strong adhesion to a variety of substrates significantly expands the practical applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces.


Superhydrophobic surface; Aluminum nitride nanopowder; Electrophoretic deposition; Hydrolysis reaction